Average Annual Precipitation, 1961-1990, New York State (Shapefile : 2000)


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Chris Daly, Spatial Climate Analysis Service
Originator: George Taylor, the Oregon Climate Service at Oregon State University
Publication_Date: 200009
Title: Average Annual Precipitation, 1961-1990, New York State (Shapefile : 2000)
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: map
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Corvallis, OR, USA
Publisher: Spatial Climate Analysis Service, Oregon State University; USDA - NRCS National Water and Climate Center, Portland, Oregon; USDA - NRCS National Cartography and Geospatial Center, Fort Worth, Texas
Online_Linkage: http://cugir.mannlib.cornell.edu/bucketinfo.jsp?id=7318
Description:
Abstract: This data set shows polygons of average annual precipitation in New York State, for the climatological period 1961-1990. Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) derived raster data is the underlying data set from which the polygons and vectors were created. PRISM is an analytical model that uses point data and a digital elevation model (DEM) to generate gridded estimates of annual, monthly and event-based climatic parameters.
Purpose: These data are intended for geographic display and analysis at the national level, and for large regional areas. The data should be displayed and analyzed at scales appropriate for 1:2,000,000-scale data. No responsibility is assumed by the Spatial Climate Analysis Service, the USDA - NRCS National Water and Climate Center, the USDA - NRCS National Cartography and Geospatial Center, or the U.S. Geological Survey in the use of these data.
Supplemental_Information: There are many methods of interpolating precipitation from monitoring stations to grid points. Some provide estimates of acceptable accuracy in flat terrain, but few have been able to adequately explain the extreme, complex variations in precipitation that occur in mountainous regions. Significant progress in this area has been achieved through the development of PRISM (Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model). PRISM is an analytical model that uses point data and a digital elevation model (DEM) to generate gridded estimates of monthly and annual precipitation (as well as other climatic parameters). PRISM is well suited to regions with mountainous terrain, because it incorporates a conceptual framework that addresses the spatial scale and pattern of precipitation in such regions. Detailed descriptions of the PRISM raster data can be found on the Oregon State University PRISM web page at <http://www.ocs.orst.edu/prism>. Additional information is available through the Natural Resources Conservation Service web pages at the National Water and Climate Center at <http://www.wcc.nrcs.usda.gov/water/climate/prism/prism.html> or through the National Cartography and Geospatial Center at <http://www.ftw.nrcs.usda.gov/prism/prismdata.html>. Other source PRISM data sets are also available in Arc/INFO coverage and Arc/INFO ASCII GRID formats from the Spatial Climate Analysis Service. See <http://www.ocs.orst.edu/prism/prism_products.html> for more information. The source PRISM data is packaged on 3 CD-ROM's covering the Lower 48 United States and is available from NRCS for $50 per CD-ROM. The 48 States are broken into three regions: East, Central and West. Each CD contains the annual and monthly precipitation coverages, as well as the gridded data. The CD-ROM's may be ordered through <http://www.ftw.nrcs.usda.gov/prism/prismdata.html>.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19610101
Ending_Date: 19901231
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: No updates are planned for the 1961-1990 climatological period. However, a similar data set will probably be produced in 2001 for the 1971-2000 climatological period.
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -124.762142
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -66.957227
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 49.371731
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 24.545220
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Theme_Keyword: Precipitation
Theme_Keyword: Climate
Theme_Keyword: PRISM
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: LCSH
Theme_Keyword: Rain and rainfall.
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: climatologyMeteorologyAtmosphere
Theme_Keyword: environment
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: LCSH
Place_Keyword: New York (State)
Access_Constraints: None.
Use_Constraints: None. Acknowledgement of the PRISM model, the Spatial Climate Analysis Service at Oregon State University, the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Water and Climate Center, the NRCS National Cartography and Geospatial Center (NCGC), and (or) the National Atlas of the United States would be appreciated in products derived from these data.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: Spatial Climate Analysis Service
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 316 Strand Agricultural Hall, Oregon State University
City: Corvallis
State_or_Province: Oregon
Postal_Code: 97331-2202
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 541-737-5705
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 541-737-5710
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: oregon@oce.orst.edu
Native_Data_Set_Environment: Windows NT Version 4.0 (Build 1381) Service Pack 4; ESRI Arc/INFO 8.0.345

Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report: Point estimates of precipitation from the U.S. National 1961-1990 Climate Normals were subjected to manual quality control checks by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). PRISM precipitation estimates were reviewed by the PRISM Evaluation Group, a panel of climatologists, meteorologists, and hydrologists. The task of this group was to assess the assumptions made by the model and compare model output with the best available precipitation maps from several western States. The group found that the PRISM maps equaled or exceeded the accuracy of the best maps available.
Logical_Consistency_Report: Precipitation data were derived from two main sources, NCDC Climate Normals and NRCS Cooperative Snow Survey Data (SNOTEL). In general, NCDC stations are located at low elevations and in valley bottoms, and encompass the entire United States. SNOTEL stations are located primarily at high elevations in the western United States. Polygon and chain-node topology are present. Checks were made to ensure that no two adjacent polygons are labeled with the same precipitation value. A manual spot check was made of peaks, depressions, and islands.
Completeness_Report: This data set includes observations and interpolated values for the 48 contiguous United States and the District of Columbia, for the climatological period 1961-1990. This data set is a compilation of the best available data from the various data sources.
Lineage:
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Spatial Climate Analysis Service, Oregon State University
Publication_Date: 1998
Title: Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM)
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Corvallis, OR, USA
Publisher: Spatial Climate Analysis Service
Type_of_Source_Media: proprietary software
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 1994
Ending_Date: 1998
Source_Currentness_Reference: publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: PRISM
Source_Contribution: PRISM was used to create gridded estimates of precipitation from point observations and digital elevation model data. For a more detailed description of the PRISM process, see <http://www.ocs.orst.edu/prism/gen_toc.html>.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Spatial Climate Analysis Service, Oregon State University
Publication_Date: 1998
Title: Gaussian Filter
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Corvallis, OR, USA
Publisher: Spatial Climate Analysis Service
Type_of_Source_Media: proprietary software
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 1994
Ending_Date: 1998
Source_Currentness_Reference: publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: FILTER
Source_Contribution: The Gaussian filter was used to change the resolution of raster data from 4 km to 2 km. The Gaussian filter was implemented as custom software written in FORTRAN. For information about Gaussian filters see: Barnes, Stanley L., 1964; A Technique for Maximizing Details in Numerical Weather Map Analysis. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 3, 396- 409.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: National Climatic Data Center (NCDC)
Publication_Date: 1991
Title: U.S. National 1961-1990 Climate Normals, Climatography of the United States No. 81 - Monthly Normals
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Asheville, NC, USA
Publisher: National Climatic Data Center
Other_Citation_Details: For more information on this source, please see <http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/ol/climate/research/normals/us/normals_clim81.html>.
Type_of_Source_Media: online database
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19610101
Ending_Date: 19901231
Source_Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: CLIM81
Source_Contribution: Location and values of known average annual precipitation.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS)
Publication_Date: 1991
Title: Cooperative Snow Survey Data of Federal-State-Private Cooperative Snow Surveys (SNOTEL)
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Cooperative Snow Survey Data of Federal-State-Private Cooperative Snow Surveys
Issue_Identification: Annual issue for Western US states
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Portland, OR, USA
Publisher: Natural Resources Conservation Service
Other_Citation_Details: For more information on this source, please see <http://www.wcc.nrcs.usda.gov/water/w_data.html>.
Type_of_Source_Media: database, paper, and online
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19610101
Ending_Date: 19901231
Source_Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: SNOTEL
Source_Contribution: Location and values of known average monthly and annual precipitation.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Natural Resources Conservation Service, National Water and Climate Center
Publication_Date: Unpublished material
Title: Local precipitation monitoring networks
Type_of_Source_Media: digital files
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19610101
Ending_Date: 19901231
Source_Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: LOCAL
Source_Contribution: Location and values of known average annual precipitation.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Defense Mapping Agency
Publication_Date: 1985
Title: 1:250,000-scale Digital Elevation Models (DEM)
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Type_of_Source_Media: digital files
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1985
Source_Currentness_Reference: publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: DEM
Source_Contribution: Terrain surface input to the PRISM model for estimation of precipitation between known points.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: U.S. Geological Survey
Publication_Date: 1999
Title: State Boundaries of the United States
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Type_of_Source_Media: online
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1999
Source_Currentness_Reference: publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: Atlas-ST
Source_Contribution: This file was used to determine the boundary of the data included.
Process_Step:
Process_Description: The DEM resolution was changed to 4 km using the Gaussian filter.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: DEM
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: FILTER
Process_Date: 199804
Process_Step:
Process_Description: All the station data was combined into one master data set.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: CLIM81
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: SNOTEL
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: LOCAL
Process_Date: 199804
Process_Step:
Process_Description: Data from CLIM81, SNOTEL, and LOCAL were incorporated into the PRISM model and combined with the DEM to produce the initial 4 km-resolution PRISM model output.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: PRISM
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: DEM
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: CLIM81
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: SNOTEL
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: LOCAL
Process_Date: 199804
Process_Step:
Process_Description: The PRISM model output was converted from 4 km to 2 km using a Gaussian filter.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: FILTER
Process_Date: 199804
Process_Step:
Process_Description: The 2 km raster data was contoured using Arc/INFO.
Process_Date: 199804
Process_Step:
Process_Description: Adjacent isohyets were converted to areas or polygons using a custom- designed macro (AML) in Arc/INFO.
Process_Date: 199804
Process_Step:
Process_Description: The coverage was created by the Spatial Climate Analysis Service using custom software. The Natural Resources Conservation Service, National Cartography and Geospatial Center edited the file in Arc/INFO to match the coastlines and boundaries (Atlas-ST) from the National Atlas of the United States. The data were converted to shapefile format for inclusion in the National Atlas of the United States.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: Atlas-ST
Process_Date: 200002
Process_Step:
Process_Description: In order to geoprocess spatial files for New York State from the National Atlas Data for distribution in CUGIR, the nationwide data files were added to a map document in ArcInfo 8.2. Using the geoprocessing wizard's clip function, the spatial files were clipped to the detailed New York polygon.
Process_Date: 200012

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Vector
Point_and_Vector_Object_Information:
SDTS_Terms_Description:
SDTS_Point_and_Vector_Object_Type: GT-polygon composed of chains
Point_and_Vector_Object_Count: 6243

Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Geographic:
Latitude_Resolution: 0.02083333
Longitude_Resolution: 0.02083333
Geographic_Coordinate_Units: Decimal degrees
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1983
Ellipsoid_Name: GRS1980
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137.0
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257222

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: Area of equal average annual precipitation (described by prismp020.dbf)
Entity_Type_Definition: Each polygon represents an area with a constant value for the average annual precipitation, as determined by the PRISM model.
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: Spatial Climate Analysis Service PRISM Project
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Shape
Attribute_Definition: The representation of the entity in the data.
Attribute_Definition_Source: U.S. Geological Survey
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Polygon
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: A 2-dimensional element.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: ESRI GIS software
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Area
Attribute_Definition: The size of the shape in coverage units.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Natural Resources Conservation Service
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0.00000
Range_Domain_Maximum: 115.09402
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Perimeter
Attribute_Definition: The perimeter of the shape in coverage units.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Natural Resources Conservation Service
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0.00647
Range_Domain_Maximum: 874.33448
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Prism0p020
Attribute_Definition: Internal feature number.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Natural Resources Conservation Service
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 2
Range_Domain_Maximum: 6244
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Range
Attribute_Definition: The average annual precipitation.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Spatial Climate Analysis Service
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0.000
Range_Domain_Maximum: 200.000
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: inches
Attribute_Measurement_Resolution: 2.5

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: Albert R. Mann Library
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Cornell University
City: Ithaca
State_or_Province: New York
Postal_Code: 14853
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 607-255-5406
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: mann_ref@cornell.edu
Distribution_Liability: Cornell Unversity provides these geographic data "as is." Cornell University makes no guarantee or warranty concerning the accuracy of information contained in the geographic data. Cornell University further makes no warranty either expressed or implied, regarding the condition of the product or its fitness for any particular purpose. The burden for determining fitness for use lies entirely with the user. Although these files have been processed successfully on computers at Cornell University, no warranty is made by Cornell University regarding the use of these data on any other system, nor does the fact of distribution constitute or imply any such warranty. These spatial datasets, associated metadata and documentation are provided at media cost, without restriction or restraint of use, from the USDA- Natural Resources Conservation Service and the Spatial Climate Analysis Service. The project was directed and sponsored by the NRCS National Water and Climate Center in Portland, Oregon. None of the agencies involved, nor any of their employees, make any warranty, expressed or implied, or assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or misuse of the data, nor represent that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. The agencies involved are not responsible for damage, transmission of viruses, or computer contamination through the distribution of this data set. Neither do they assume any responsibility for the usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed in this metadata. Reference in this metadata to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government, the State of Oregon, or any agency thereof. Any views and opinions of authors expressed in this metadata do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government, the State of Oregon, or any agency thereof. Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the U.S. Geological Survey, no warranty expressed or implied is made by the U.S. Geological Survey regarding the utility of the data on any other system, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty. No responsibility is assumed by the U.S. Geological Survey in the use of these data.

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20010906
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Peg Rawson
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 521 National Center
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703-648-4183
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: atlasmail@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Security_Information:
Metadata_Security_Classification_System: None
Metadata_Security_Classification: Unclassified
Metadata_Security_Handling_Description: None